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Military-Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineer and Signal Corps in St. Petersburg

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The Military-Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineer and Signal Corps in St. Petersburg is the largest Military Museum in the world. It is also known as the Museum of Artillery, at the same time it is one of the oldest museums of the city. The creation of the museum started at the same time as the building of St. Petersburg.

The Museum was build by the order of Peter 1, as a place where should be saved unique historical examples of weapon and they should be situated in .In the middle of 19th century the military collection moved in the Peter and Paul Fortress (Petropavlovskaya Krepost). Later it became a museum.

Museum of Artillery

Today in the collection of the Museum are situated for more than 500.000 exhibits, among them are: different artillery technics, military form of different ages, military emblems and flags, medals, work of military art, weapon trophies of Russian army,the largest collection of different small-weapon and cold weapon – from iron arquebus and ancient Slavonic swords to the Kalashnikov gun.

In the museum you can also see the main guns of Peter the Great, a front car that moved artillery flags, military awards of Russian Emperors, private gun of Alexander 1 and Nikolay 2, Napoleon Bonapart,marshal Murrey and many other russian and soviet military captains and commanders. In the museum there is a hall of russian rocket technics – starting with technics of 18th century and till the first nuclear rockets.This exhibition is devoted to Kutuzov, consisted of his things that are situated in a rebuilt room, where he spend his last days of life.

Artillery Museum

On the 3d floor of the Museum there are exhibits devoted to the Great Patriotic War. But what mostly attracts visitors’ attention is an outter exposition, that was opened in november 2002 after the reconstruction. On the open squares of the territory are situated 250 items of artillery and rocket weapon, engineer technics and technics of communication. Here are represented as the soviet as the foreign weapons – from the ancient to the modern ones.

As the museum was built in 1703, since that times here you can find here the greatest collection – Russian weapons and weapon of many other countries, including experimental examples and private weapon of famous people, uniform, awards, examples of sculpture and oil paintings, models of fortresses, documents and many other. The museum is situated on the territory of Petropavlovskaya Krepost. The inner buildings are decorated in gothic style and the inner court is railed by a brick wall. The main and nearest attracts are Petropavlovskaya Krepost, Alexandrovskiy Park, Leninskiy zoo, the Winter Palace and House of Peter the Great.

Historical Museum

Nowadays the Artillery Museum has unique collections of weapons; in its fonds are gathered more than 700.000 items, 215.000 of archives, 100.000 books of military and historical literature, 90.000 of photographic negatives and slides.

Since 1918 the Museum keeps more than 27 regimental sections of Russian Army. The exposition is situated in 13 halls and on the territory of more than 17.000 square kilometers, here are represented the examples of middleaged and modern weapons, rocket systems that are situated on the outter exposition.

During 2002 year in the Museum is opened the exposition “Weapon legends of 20th century”. Here are represented examples of weapon of the legendary constructors, such as, Brawning, Mauzer, Nagan, Kalashnikov and many others. The unique collection allows to follow the development of weapon during 20th century – from guns and rifles of World War First to the modern examples of individual and group small-weapon.

The Military-Historical Museum of Artillery

In the Museum are gathered the best collections from Russia and 54 countries of the world, you will be definitely impressed by such a variety. The Military-Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineer and Signal Corps in St.Petersburgh is a precious place to visit, it will be interesting for people from all over the world. Here you can learn about the historical and cultural life of Russia, France, Great Britain, Denmark, Sweden and many other outstanding countries.

Visiting of the oldest Russian Museum will give you not only pleasure, but an opportunity to learn more about age-old military history of Russia and many other countries.

Kunstkamera

The Kunstkamera in Saint Petersburg. Taken by Steven & Nadine Pavlov ::: senapa.livejournal.com

Located on the Universitetskya Embankment, right opposite the Dvortsovaya Embankment and the Winter Palace, the Peter the Great Museum of Antropology and Ethnography is among St. Petersburg’s most vivid sights. The museum is a no-miss attraction for both city residents and travelers.

Kunstkamera

Founded by Peter the Great in 1714 and completed in 1727, the Museum presents an incredibly diverse collection of items. It is housed in the turreted Petrine Baroque-style Kunstkamera building by Georg Johann Mattarnovy, and presents stunning anthropologic and archaeological collections reflecting the diversity of cultures, customs and traditions.

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The Museum’s collection is the largest in the world, and it comprises nearly 2,000,000 items. It houses one of the world’s most extensive anthropologic collections, which originated as Peter’s personal cabinet of curiosities. The collection included human and animal fetuses with anatomic deformities. The goal was to dispel myths about freaks and monsters and make a step forward in anatomical and anthropological research. One of the tsar’s orders was to deliver still-born infants to St. Petersburg from around the country and thus replenish the collection.

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The history of the formation of the Museum’s collection began with Peter’s purchase of a collection of fetuses from Frederic Ruish, a renowned Dutch anatomist.  Today, the Kunstkamera presents 24 anatomic collections featuring 1388 exhibits, with the Ruish Collection comprising 937 items, and the Russian Anthropologic Collection presenting 144 items.

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The idea to create the collection dawned upon Peter the Great when he saw an unusual double-trunk birch tree on the Vasilievsky Island with one trunk growing out of the base of the other one. Allegedly, the scene perplexed Peter so much that he decided to establish a museum of ‘accidents of nature’.

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Alexander Pushkin Apartment Museum

Alexander Pushkin Apartment Museum

Alexander Pushkin Apartment Museum in St.Petersburg – is a memorial Museum of the world famous poet Pushkin. Moreover it is an apartment where Pushkin has lived; it became a museum after his death. The Museum can tell us about Pushkin, his life and his creativity.

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Pushkin was a famous poet, prosaist, playwright, publicist and founder of a new Russian literature known all over the world. He was born in Moscow in a family of a noble line, since his childhood he was well – brought-up by French tutors. He got an educuation at home where he received splendid knowledge of french language and got love for reading. When he was a child he got aquainted with works of many famous writers, such as Lomonosov and Zhukovskiy, Volter and many others. His grandmother and his nurse where well educated women who teached him and developed his love for Russian language.

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Pushkin continued his education in a new building for russian children from noble family lines, it was called Tsarskoselkiy lyceum, it was the first building in the country that was intended to give education by a special programme of goverment bureaucrats. Actually here for the first time Pushkin felt himself as a true poet. His talent was admitted not only by his friends, among whom were Pushin, Kuhelbeker, Delvig, but also by his teachers – Zukovkiy, Batushkov, Karamzin and many others.

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During all of his life Pushkin gave the main meaning to writing, he wrote lots of splendid poems and fairy-tails, stories and novels. At the very beginning of his creativity way his works were not published though were well-known all over the city. In 1814 his poem was published in a Moscow magazine.In 1817 he was graduated from Tsarskoselkiy lyceum and then went to serve in the Collegium of foreign affairs.He could not stop wrtiting and didnt pay much attention to his work there.

Saint Petersburg, Russia, 25/07/2005. Portraits of Alexander Pushkin and his wife Natalia Goncharova in his apartment in the National Pushkin Museum.

While his life Pushkin wrote many splendid and wonderful poems though whenever he was he felt like an outcast, for his high talent and amazing works he got terrible attitude at any city where he stayed. Even the Emperor Nikolay didnt hide his hateness to Pushkin. In 1831 Pushkin got married with Goncharova. They lived in marriage 6 years and had 4 kids.

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Last years of Pushkin’s life were complicated, he had a lot of debts and that is why tried to write more. His books were hardly bought, that is why he decided to leave his service and started to write only. He issued a magazine called “Sovremennik”, but it was still not popular. In 1836 Pushkin got a letter where it was said that his wife and baron Dantes have relationship. So this letter became a reason for a duet between Dantes and Pushkin, where Dantes shot the first and injured Pushkin. His wound was fatal. After two days Pushkin died, his life tried to save the best doctors but for those times such wound was fatal, during these days many people came to visit Pushkin, and even Nikolay 1 wrote him notes. Before death Pushkin asked him to help his family and let them want for nothing.

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Nowadays in his apartment there is a Museum. In his house are met people who appreciate and commemorate the date of his death.The exposition in the Museum is divided into two parts: the first tells about the history of the house consisted of 11 flats one of which was rented by Pushkin, also it tells about the historical events of  Pushkin’s arrival in St.Petersburg. The second – is an apartment where he lived and where are saved his and items of his family. In the apartment there is an atmosphere of Pushkin’s age.Here are the furniture, his writing desk, an armchair and the sofa, a smoking pipe and his ink-pot – all these things that remain us about Pushkin. In his wife’s room you can find her parfume, purses, a coral bracelet and many other things.

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Among many other items there are portraits of a poet and members of his family. In the museum there are also items connected with his duet and death, and the main are his waistcoat and the sofa he died on. In two small halls are also represented prints, paintings, portraits of friends and materials that tell about the duet of 1837.

The main territory also takes a large library, it includes 4000 books on 14 languages. As the most of Apartment Museums, Alexander Pushkin Apartment Museum is not only a place of excursions, but also a cultural centre, where different conferentions, seminars and literature evenings take place.

Russian State Museum of Arctic and Antarctic

Museum of Arctic and Antarctic

Russian State Museum of Arctic and Antarctic – is the only one in Russia and the largest in the world cultural building that reflects polar theme, it is a unique Museum of polar countries. The scientific conception of the museum was created by the leader soviet scentists and polar-explorers. A significant part of St.Petersburg citizens is involved in scientific progress, connected with exploration of North.

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The history of the museum has started from the Travelling Polar Exhibitions (1922- 1935), that later were added into Museum of Arctic.With the beginning of researching works in Antarctics, 1956-1958, the Museum opened a new section called “ Antarctic”, so the whole name of the Museum started to sound like Museum of Arctic and Antarctic. In 1988 the Museum became an offical building. Nowadays there are three departments there: Nature of Arctic, The history and exploration of North sea way, and Antarctic.

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The materials that are kept in the Museum considered unique historical monuments, that have a world meaning, and the Museum tries to keep cultural and historical tradition of St.Petersburg as a centre of polar researches of Russia. Officially the Museum was opened in January 1937, though the decision of its creation was made long before.

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The Museum got not only Soviet but also international recognition very quickly; in 1937 on the World Expossition in Paris the Museum got an Award. Later in 1950 started a new period in searching of new polar regions of the world- it was researching of the Antarctic.So the collection of the museum added new exhibits from the First Soviet Expeditions.

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Though one of the first exhibits of the Museum was a three-seat hydroplane SH-2 that was built in the Leningrad by the Shargaev project.Though there are many interesting can be found in the Museum and actually you dont know which section is the best. In “Nature of Arctic”section are represented exhibits, characterizing georaphical peculiarities of Arctic, its picturesque and vegetative world. Its unique artistic works are dioramas Bird market, Tundra in winter, Tundra in summer, Rookery, Glacier of Shokalskiy in winter and many others created by Platunov and Zipalin.

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The central place of the exibition takes model of Arctic, that represents by itself a part of a globe with a relief map. This model was made on the basement of materials by Shokalskiy in 1936. Antarctic is another part, and in reality Antarctic is a lowest polar area of the world. It includes in itself Antarctic and the water territories of the Southern Ocean with small ice islands. Antarctic is a place of an ice continent, where less than 1 % of its territory is free from ice.

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The climate in Antarctic is very frosty. Even in summer time the temperature of the air on he most part of the territories doesnt raise up for than 0. In winter the temperature is above – 30-50 degrees, in some other areas -80 degrees. The lowest temperature of the air on the Earth was in July of 1983, and it was – 89 degrees. The flora and fauna on this ice continent is almost absent. The most well-known animals of Antarctic are penguins.

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So this section tells about the nature of the 6th continent, the history of its discovery, the main expiditions and the activity of Soviet researches. The first who saw the shpres of Antarctic were russian sailor Lazarev and Bellinsgauzen. On the small boats they passed ices and lots of snowy icebergs and in 1820 they found a new continent, called later Antarctic. While their world round trip they went around Antarctic and found a new island of Peter 1 and the earth of Alexander 1.

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The most unique collection in the museum is a collection of items of cold-dwellers in the first half of the 17th century, found in Western Siberia. There is a collection of art from the North, including clothes and items made of deer’s skin and water animals, collection of paintings from the University of North of 1930, here is represented sculpture and oil paitings, there is also a great and unique collection of coins (4000 items), where are gathered different coins from all over the world.

Nowadays the collection of the Museum gathered 75000 of exhibits. Among them are unique exhibits of 16th century. During 70 years of its work Russian State Museum of Arctic and Antarctic took more than 300 of exhibitions in Russia and abroad. More than 6 million people saw its collections. So Russian State Museum of Arctic and Antarctic became an essential part of cultural life of St.Petersburg and Russia.

Gatchina

Gatchina

Gatchina is a wonderful picturesque city, located in the south- eastern part of St.Petersburg, 46 kilometers away from it. In this small city there are many palaces and landscapes that can be considered a real works of art. This small place in the world was built and decorated by talented masters, architectures, sculptors and gardeners, they created there a real piece of art that still didnt loose its beautiful nature.

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The first villa in Gatchina was built for Natalia Alekseevna, who was a sister of Peter 1, in 1708. Catherine 2 bought its place for Graf Orlov after death of Natalia Alekseevna. Graf Orlov appreciated her gift very much and at once started to invite famous russian and foreign achitecturers to build architectural palaces and parks there.

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The Palace that looks like a hunting house with towers was built by the project of famous italian achitect Antonio Rinaldi. Creation of Chemenskiy obelisk in honour of victory of russian sailers over turkish army in 1770 was also planned by Rinaldi. Park was designed in english style in accordance with modern requires of landscape design, and became one of the most wonderful parks.

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The Empress decided to bought the villa after the death of graf Orlov and gave it as a gift to her son Pavel Petrovich, who became later the Empreror Pavel 1. He changed the look of the villa and it started to look like a real camp. Pavel 1 asked an achitect Vinchencco Brenno to change the look of the Palace, to make it look like a middleaged castle with bridges and bastions.

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Instead of the field in front of the Palace appeared a military camp.There were spent marches by armies and taught soldiers and officers of Prussian army. Gathina started to be called a city officilally and even got its own emblem in 1796, when Pavel 1 became an Emperor. Since then the Palace got the functions of Emperor residence. After the death of Pavel there were no changes in a city, and in 1851 a monument to Peter 1 was located on the square in front of the Palace.

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In russian history of aviation Gatchina played an important role, here was opened the first air school and aeroclub, and on the military field aeromen showed their first flights.

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The architectural territory of Gatchina was not robbed after the October Revolution as it happened to many other historical places, later there was opened a museum. With the beginning of the Great Patriotic War many works of art from an artistic gallery of the Paalce were removed and brought abroad. In 1941 german army occupied its territories and the city was ruined, the Palace was destroyed,trees damages and pavillions were ruined with explosions.

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The reconstructionstarted after the war and lasted for many years, so the park and the palace were opened visiting again only in 1985.So after the Great Patriotic war the Palace became a museum where were gathered for more than 54.000 precious exhibits. It was possible to save 5th half of all the exhibits during the war with the help of museums workers.The Palace suffered a lot from bombing and the inner decoration was almost entirely ruined.

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Gathin’s gardens and picturesque parks are represented by its projects and rich with its flora, beuatiful kinds of trees. There are bridges, terraces, effective stone stairs, pavillion with an Eagle symbol on the Long Island, Venus pavillion on the island of Love, Wood orangery, Poultry house, Birch and Admiralty gates.

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Prioratskiy Palace is also unique with its look and architecture. It reminds a middleaged castle. In 1971- 1975 a unique Birch House was built in Gatchina, by its look it reminds a huge stack of wood. The main peculiarities of Gatchina represent parks and basins – White and  Silver lakes, Karpin Pond and its islands.

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At the presence of Alexander 2, Alexander 3 and Nikolay 2 till 1917 Gatchina was their favourite place of hunting. At the beginning of 20th century Gatchcna became a country villa and became a favoutrite place of rest for citizens of St.Petersburg. Later there developed social life, started to work organizations and societies, was opened the first theatre.

In the city appeared cars with high speed that moved on the lit streets, and in the sky appeared first military aeroplanes.

That is how citizens of Gatchina became the first spectators of new technologies in the 20th century.

Kazan Cathedral in St. Petersburg

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Kazan Cathedral in St. Petersburg, Russia – is a Slavonic catherdal church that is situated in the very centre of the city. Foresides of the building look on Nevskiy prospect and Griboedov channel. It is one of the largest buildings in Northern capital and its height is 71.5 meters. By its name are called an island in Neva River, a bridge through Nevskiy prospect and Griboedov channel, and a street that goes from the church.

Kazan Cathedral
In 1710 on the Nevskiy prospect near the wood building of the hospital was built a new chapel that later that wood church started to be called Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan. A new stone church was bilt in September of 1733 by the order of the Empress Anna Ioannovna. It was built by the project of Zemtsov and was called Christmassy.

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The greatest decoration of the church was a bell in height 58 meters. On 2 july from the Trinity Cathedral arrived an icon of  Lady of Kazan, and the Christmas church started to call by the name of its icon, later this church got the status of a Cathedral, that became the main Cathedral in Northern capital.
At the end of 18th century the building was ruined and it was decided to build a new Cathedral. Pavel 1 wanted this Cathedral to look like the Cathedral of St.Peter’s Basilica in Rome and in 1799 there started a contest for this project.

Kazan Cathedral in St. Petersburg
Graf Stroganov, which residence was near the church suggested the project of young architect Voronihin, his previous bondman. So the project of Andrey Voronihin was approved. In the presence of Alexander 1, was built a new church.Graf Stroganov became responsible for the building which was over in 1811. Voronihin the author of the project was awarded with an order of second level and life-long pension.

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In the building of church toll part only Russian masters, most of builders were peasants who gave all their money to their owners. At first they lived in houses in the country and later in barracks. For the decoration of church were used soviet materials such as: marble, granite and limestone.

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Voronihin had the main task, as on the west of teh church should be the entrance and on the east – Holy table, then the church was turned to the Nevskiy prospect by its side. By the decision of teh architect before the north side, there was built a colonnade of 96 columns with height 13 meters, made in a half round. And that is how the north side of the church became front.

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The project was not the whole. By its plan there should be two cononnades from both sides – northern and southern, but it was built only the one norther. So the cononnades should be connected together with a fence and make a square. At the northern side there are 4 bronze sculptures, bronze door are situated at the entrance from the northern side and they are the copy of the Cathedral in Florence.The project was also not finished, there should be two figures at each of the side on the pedestal, figures of archangels Mihail and Gavriil.

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The design of the church remains a huge Palace hall, the light that goes through the windows make an impression that the dome is on the huge height.
Actually all the main evwnts in Russian history are connected with the church, this place visited field marshal Kutuzov before he left in the army, here in 1813 arrived his ash, his body was burried in a crypt within the church. Monuments to Kutuzov and Barlay de Tolli were added to the Cathedral, they looked splendid together with sculpture and architecture of the Cathedral.

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Their fugures are depicted in the whole height, on their shoulders they have coats, they were made of bronze by sculptor Orlovskiy.
After the revolution of 1917 from the dome was taken away a cross, and on his place was located a golden ball, later here also opened a museum of Religion history. The look of Lady of Kazan was moved to Kniaz-Vladimirskiy Cathedral.

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The building got several tackles during the blockade of Leningrad, but after the war the Cathedral was rebuilt. Since 1991 Kazan Cathedral in St. Petersburg was opened again for church services. An icon of Lady of Kazan was returned into Cathedral and a golden cross appeared on the dome again.
To the anniversary of St.Petersburg the Cathedral got the largest casted dome with weight of 4 tonnes and with height more than 2 meters. Nowadays there take place church services.

Cruiser Aurora

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Cruiser Aurora – is a cruiser that was well-known by its important role in Glorious October Socialist Revolution, it was built by a shipbuilding programm in 1895.And in the 1897 it appeared in St.Petersburg, at the same time three ships “Diana”, “Pallada” and “Aurora”. So Aurora got its name on honour of destroyer leader who was fighting in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy.

Cruiser Aurora

Actually this type of cruisers was made for the role of fighting and exploring. However, the cruiser’s possibilities were not enough for far distance, low speed, and poor military hardware.

So that is why the cruiser was called to become an educational cruiser. The team of the cruiser consistef of 600 people and its shell was protected with copper.

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The first war events where Cruiser Aurora took place were Russo-Japanese war, next was Zusimskiy fighting, Glorious October Socialist Revolution. After  Glorious October Socialist Revolution Cruiser Aurora was left its native name, as it supposed to be the only Emperor ship. But later the cruiser became again educational, some time after, the cruiser participated in Civil War that lasted not for a long time. But after this, Cruiser Aurora took part in the Great Patriotic war and protected Leningrad. But in 1941 after some damages it was repaired, but while this time Cruiser didnt lower the flag.

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So even before the war was over, it was a desicion to rebuilt the ship as a monument of an active participant in the Revolution of 1917. “Aurora” was taken for rebuilding in 1944 and after the whole repairing started to look the same as in 1917. Though it took for 3 years. As a result the ship became an educational place for the students of  Nahimovskiy college. Where future officers got their first service on the ship.

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And though while Soviet Goverment Aurora became an educational, it was considered to be a great symbol of revolution. While repairing Aurora was screened in a movie even.The Museum was created since 1950 by the common forces of enthusiasts and veterans. In 1956 it was decided to give the ship status of the Central Military Navy Museum.Since 1961 Aurora stoped to be an educational ship, it became a museum.

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In 1980 the ship was required to be repaired again. In Aurora were made restored works, and after this the whole design of the ship inside has changed. So there is a museum on the deck, there is a section of museum workers, a kitchen, a living block for officers, a companion cabin and a captain saloon. So everything inside is equiped with the rules as being on a Military Sea Navy.

Before pipes of air inlets partially latent spare blade of the screw is visible (????? ??????? ????????????????? ????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????)

So nowadays for 50 years Cruisere Aurora is situated near the front sea of St.Petersburgh. The appearance of the ship is very common already. And everybody knows that Cruiser Aurora is a monument to the Soviet Shipbuilding, though thу ship met a lot of events during its way in the history of 20th century.

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It is a defender of Russia in three wars, a participant in the events of February Revolution,  in october of 1917, it is a place of training many navy officers, that even later it became a Museum. And it still has saved the status of the number 1 ship of Russian Military Navy.

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So Cruiser Aurora has a legendary and unforgettable past, and even nowadays Aurora attracts millions of people all over the world.

The exposition at Aurora has 6 buildings, where are situated almost 1.000 of different exhibits. Among them are paintings and water-color works, flags and symbols of the ship, true historical documents, connected with cruiser, many pictures of sailors who worked on this ship, medals and awards, collections of coins with the ship, models of russian military navy, and also presents from the goverment, military men and different organizations from all over the world.

The State Russian Museum

Museum

The State Russian Museum – is the first national museum of fine arts, built in 1895 in St.Petersburg by the order of the emperor Nikolay 2. The best exposition of the museum is showed in the Mikhaylovsky Palace and in the Benua. Here you can find many works of Russian famous painters, such as Rublev, Bruni, Kiprienskiy, Repin, Vrubel, Shishkin and many others. It is also the largest place in the world where all the best Russian exhibits are gathered. Works of art with different tendencies, started from 10th to 20th centuries are represented in the museum. It is a treasury of unique artistic values. The main expositions are located in the Mikhaylovsky Palace and in the Benya building. Artistic values are also located in Marble and Stroganov Palaces, in Summer Garden of Peter the Great. Over 50 exhibitions can take place at these territories at one moment. Sometimes these exhibitions take place in different Russian cities and abroad as well.

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It was the Emperor Nikolay 2, who has written an order to build a museum in honour of his dad Alexander 2. Its opening took place on the 7 March in 1899. It was the first national museum of Russian fine arts. The basement of the collection was the first 80 paintings from the Hermitage, 120 paintings from the Artistic Academy and 200 from country Palaces. They were situated in the Mihalovskiy Palace; this unique collection was created with exhibits, bought at auctions and by means of private property.

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The Mihalovskiy Palace was built in 1819 – 1825 by the architect Rossi for the Emperor Pavel’s son named Mikhail Pavlovich. Building of the Mikhaylovsky Palace started when Mihail was 21. Rossi was a talented architect; he added a complex that depicted the look of St.Petersburg city. Rossi has also built Mikhaylovsky Street and connected Mikhaylovsky Square with Nevsky Avenue. Later the Palace was bought out and given to the “Russian Museum of the Emperor Alexander 3”.

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In 1914 the area of the Mihalovskiy Palace was not enough to hold exhibits and in 1917 by the project of architect Benua, a new building was built on the Griboedov sea front. Nowadays on the first floor of the Benua building you can find works of Soviet art, on the second – works of art from the second half of 19th – to the beginning of 20th century. In 1917 lots of national cultural values were added to this collection.

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While the Great Patriotic War the Mikhaylovsky Palace and the Benua building suffered a lot from shooting attacks. But after the renovation in May of 1946 the State Russian Museum was opened for visitors. Nowadays the State Russian Museum participates in different exhibitions and international auctions, having the main purpose to get the best and most valuable works of art. The collection changes and enriches day by day. Ancient Russian graphic arts, visual arts of 18th-20th centuries, sculptures, paintings, prints, numismatics, water-color paintings, subjects of national usage, modern oil paintings can be found in the museum nowadays.

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To the most precious artifacts of the museum include monuments of Ancient Russia, counting more than 18.000 of exhibits. This is a collection of family copies of middle-aged frescoes and collection of ancient sewing, icons. The same unique is the collection of oil paintings by Levizky, Rokotov, Brullov, Aivazovsky and many others.

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In Soviet years the collection of the State Russian Museum was enriched by many modern works of art. In the section of modern art you can find  the works of Moiseenko, Oreshnikova, Muhinoi, Anikushina, Favorskogo, Kibrika and many others. A walk in the State Russian Museum – is a classical trip through the russian history. The best icons, such as Rubleva, Repina, Vasnecova, Vrubela, Surikova, Levitana, Serova and many others, are represented also. Every year over 30 modern exhibitions take place in the museum.

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So the Russian Museum is a truly unique museum. It is considered to be unique because it was the first museum of fine arts, it has a unique collection, unique buildings and architecture, the place where it is situated. The Russian Museum is a real pride of Russian Culture.

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The State Russian Museum will be an interesting and unique place to visit either for foreigners or for people from other Russian cities. You have unforgettable impressions about this trip, moreover you will learn more about Russian history, culture and art.

The State Hermitage Museum

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The State Hermitage Museum (St. Petersburg, Russia) has the best collection in the world. There can be counted near 3 million of artworks and monuments in the world culture. It includes – paintings, sculptures, graphic arts, archeological finds and many other interesting materials. The main residence of the Hermitage is situated in the very centre of Russia. It contains also the Winter Palace, which was the residence of Russian emperors, buildings of Small, Old and New Hermitage, the Hermitage Theater and the Reserve House. The Palace of Menshikov and the eastern part of the Main headquarter building are added in the museum complex, the restoration centre called “The Old Village”, and the museum of the Emperor ceramic plant. Collections of the Hermitage are precious, the represent such a rare uniqueness, that is interesting for many people of different countries, ages and nationalities.

Hermitage

Nowadays collections are gathered into 5 different buildings. For example, the Winter Palace is a beautiful place that differs from the other buildings by its luxury and refinement. It has been an Emperor residence for over 150 years. The Small Hermitage is situated near the Winter Palace; it was built especially for placing artistic collections. The New Hermitage is the first museum building in Russia, which was built by a special project. Its entrance is decorated with 10 sculptures, which were created in centuries but still keep one design and look of St. Petersburg. The Hermitage was built in 1764; the first collection of foreign painters has appeared there, later there were added sculptures, ceramic works, coins, beautiful fretwork stones, tapestries, carpets, furniture, jewelleries, medals, paintings and many others. What is the most interesting is that only originals are kept here. The section of monuments includes paintings, sculptures, and graphic. In more than 100 halls works from Italy, Germany, France, Holland, England, Spain and the others are gathered. Here are also represented works of Leonardo Da Vinci, Rubens, Raphael and many others. In section of history, culture and art you can lead the transformation of people and their life since the ancient Lithic Age to Bronze Age.

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There are also showed ancient armaments, clothes, carpets, things made of gold. It contains the rarest things you can ever find since ancient times. Here are more than 140.000 monuments – ancient examples of writing, paintings, frescoes of Ancient Egypt, monuments of Pharaohs. The main value also represents paintings that were found while archeological excavations of ancient Russian cities and villages, they brought us the knowledge of culture and life of Ancient Russia. The most beautiful section is supposed to be the floor that is made of frescoes and mosaic in Mihaloisko-Zlatoverhi Abbey, here are added also examples of stone fretwork, jewelleries and collection of icons. Exposition showes us also the history of Moscow in 15-17th centuries, documents, books, medical instruments, navigation and artillery can tell us about reforms that took place in Russia in Petrovsky age. Art works, paintings, sculptures, graphic works, prints and frescoes can tell us about development at those times, that reflect the main events of the North War, that lasted for 21 years, and the building of St. Patersburg. The main impression you can get by entering halls of Winter Palace, Petrovskiy hall is devoted to the memory of Petr the First, picturesque panels depict him and his fightings. Here are also depicted arms gathered all over Russia. Here is also a gallery of 1812 year where more than 300 portraits of generals and participants of the Great Patriotic War are shown.

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A Large throne room is the most beautiful attraction you can meet, it is decorated with white marble and gilded bronze, the floor has the similar look as the ceiling, the main territory of the hall is 800 sq. meters, and all the halls were designed with malachite. The Hermitage is the world famous museum. More than 3.5 million of people visit it every year. It is the best gallery of Russia, it represents the world art and is supposed to be one of the best artistic museums in the world. The Hermitage is the best attraction of St. Petersburg. It was built when Catherine the Great bought 255 paitings from Berlin, nowadays there are more than 2 million of paitings that gathered there and depict art of different countries and nationalities. It is said that if you will spend by a minute at one of all the paitings in the Hermitage, it can take you 11 years to look all. So if once you decided to visit the State Hermitage Museum in St.Petersburg, Russia do not have doubts about it. You can get unforgettable impressions and get many interesting knowledges, learn and discover many unusual and unknown facts for you, you can discover things you have never known about. Moreover, you can learn about art, history, culture and life of different countries and in differnet times.

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