Alexander Garden

 

Alexander Garden 2

Alexander Garden 1

Alexander Garden is placed right in the heart of the city encircling the Admiralty building. The garden was opened in 1874 after two years of laborious tasks and work of hundreds of botanists, architects, engineers and workers. The idea of the creation belongs to Russian admiral Samuel Greig, and Eduard Regel was appointed to be the main botanist and administrator of works. Just to imagine how big the performance was: 5260 trees were planted, 12640 boscages of 52 various species were cropped, 115 cast-iron benches with wooden seats were placed across the garden, most of trees were supplied with tags on which names of species were written in Russian and Latin. The emperor Alexander II in honor of whom the garden was named planted an oak which still remains at the same place guarded by enclosure.

Alexander Garden 3

The garden changed its names ten times throughout the history. The first name was given in 1706 even before the plan of the garden had appeared. Only during the 20th century the garden changed its name three times and since 1997 it exists under the original name. It is surrounded by city sights, monuments and memorials such as Zimniy Palace, Dvorcovaya square, Medniy Vsadnik, St. Isaac’s Cathedral and the Admiralty building. Alexander garden is connected with two St. Petersburg famous squares – Senatskaya and Dvorzovaya. If you take a look at the map then you will see that it seems like there are three rays coming out of the garden – this scheme was an initiative of Peter I the Great – they are three main streets Nevskiy and Voznesenskiy avenues, Gorohavaya Street. At present there are a fountain, two statues, and six monuments of outstanding people in Russian history. They were a writer, poet, composer, scientist, and politician. Total area of the garden is over 90 thousand square meters, so it is a great place to spend time usefully becoming familiar with various historical sights.

Alexander Garden

Russian State Museum of Arctic and Antarctic

Museum of Arctic and Antarctic

Russian State Museum of Arctic and Antarctic – is the only one in Russia and the largest in the world cultural building that reflects polar theme, it is a unique Museum of polar countries. The scientific conception of the museum was created by the leader soviet scentists and polar-explorers. A significant part of St.Petersburg citizens is involved in scientific progress, connected with exploration of North.

Museum of Arctic and Antarctic6

The history of the museum has started from the Travelling Polar Exhibitions (1922- 1935), that later were added into Museum of Arctic.With the beginning of researching works in Antarctics, 1956-1958, the Museum opened a new section called “ Antarctic”, so the whole name of the Museum started to sound like Museum of Arctic and Antarctic. In 1988 the Museum became an offical building. Nowadays there are three departments there: Nature of Arctic, The history and exploration of North sea way, and Antarctic.

Museum of Arctic and Antarctic3

The materials that are kept in the Museum considered unique historical monuments, that have a world meaning, and the Museum tries to keep cultural and historical tradition of St.Petersburg as a centre of polar researches of Russia. Officially the Museum was opened in January 1937, though the decision of its creation was made long before.

Museum of Arctic and Antarctic7

The Museum got not only Soviet but also international recognition very quickly; in 1937 on the World Expossition in Paris the Museum got an Award. Later in 1950 started a new period in searching of new polar regions of the world- it was researching of the Antarctic.So the collection of the museum added new exhibits from the First Soviet Expeditions.

Museum of Arctic and Antarctic1

Though one of the first exhibits of the Museum was a three-seat hydroplane SH-2 that was built in the Leningrad by the Shargaev project.Though there are many interesting can be found in the Museum and actually you dont know which section is the best. In “Nature of Arctic”section are represented exhibits, characterizing georaphical peculiarities of Arctic, its picturesque and vegetative world. Its unique artistic works are dioramas Bird market, Tundra in winter, Tundra in summer, Rookery, Glacier of Shokalskiy in winter and many others created by Platunov and Zipalin.

Museum of Arctic and Antarctic8

The central place of the exibition takes model of Arctic, that represents by itself a part of a globe with a relief map. This model was made on the basement of materials by Shokalskiy in 1936. Antarctic is another part, and in reality Antarctic is a lowest polar area of the world. It includes in itself Antarctic and the water territories of the Southern Ocean with small ice islands. Antarctic is a place of an ice continent, where less than 1 % of its territory is free from ice.

Museum of Arctic and Antarctic5

The climate in Antarctic is very frosty. Even in summer time the temperature of the air on he most part of the territories doesnt raise up for than 0. In winter the temperature is above – 30-50 degrees, in some other areas -80 degrees. The lowest temperature of the air on the Earth was in July of 1983, and it was – 89 degrees. The flora and fauna on this ice continent is almost absent. The most well-known animals of Antarctic are penguins.

Museum of Arctic and Antarctic4

So this section tells about the nature of the 6th continent, the history of its discovery, the main expiditions and the activity of Soviet researches. The first who saw the shpres of Antarctic were russian sailor Lazarev and Bellinsgauzen. On the small boats they passed ices and lots of snowy icebergs and in 1820 they found a new continent, called later Antarctic. While their world round trip they went around Antarctic and found a new island of Peter 1 and the earth of Alexander 1.

Museum of Arctic and Antarctic2

The most unique collection in the museum is a collection of items of cold-dwellers in the first half of the 17th century, found in Western Siberia. There is a collection of art from the North, including clothes and items made of deer’s skin and water animals, collection of paintings from the University of North of 1930, here is represented sculpture and oil paitings, there is also a great and unique collection of coins (4000 items), where are gathered different coins from all over the world.

Nowadays the collection of the Museum gathered 75000 of exhibits. Among them are unique exhibits of 16th century. During 70 years of its work Russian State Museum of Arctic and Antarctic took more than 300 of exhibitions in Russia and abroad. More than 6 million people saw its collections. So Russian State Museum of Arctic and Antarctic became an essential part of cultural life of St.Petersburg and Russia.

Summer Garden

panorama-of-the-summer-garden-in-st-petersburg

The summer garden or “Letniy Sad” how it is actually pronounced in the original is the oldest garden of the cultural capital of Russia, St. Petersburg. It dates from the first quarter of 18th century. The building process started in 1704 and took 15 years to complete. Bounds of the garden were determined, land was reclamated, ponds were made, a dike over Fontanka River was built during these years etc. Peter I the Great ordered to lay the park and approved the primary plan of it, which corresponded to the style of Dutch Baroque. For the first time in St. Petersburg fountains were set just in the Summer Garden. Peter the Great brought them from Italy along with sculptures and in order to provide water he built the Ligovskiy channel of many kilometers.

summer garden 1

summer garden 3

At the time of Peter I the Summer Garden was closed for public and no one could enter the garden without an invitation. It was initially established as a summer residence of the monarch. The daughter of the latter in time of her governing made the garden opened for citizens that were pleasantly dressed. After the flood of 1777 the fountains were destroyed and it was decided not to restore them.

summer garden

summer garden 2

In 1839 Karl XIV, the Swedish Monarch, gave a porphyritic vase to Russian Emperor Nikolay the First as a token of a goodwill which was made at king’s manufacture in Elfdalen and since then it became a part of the gardens embellishments. In 2008 some comers noticed a crack on the vase and the information got in all mass media. However specialist said that there is no danger in the micro crack but it split into two pieces. After the accident and because of anxiety about vandalism the administration of the Summer Garden thought of copying statues that are in the garden and send originals in storage, placing video cameras across it and reconstruction of the whole park.