Oranienbaum (Lomonosov)


Oranienbaum (Lomonosov) is a small city located in 40 kilometers away from St. Petersburg, Russia. Its a suburb of northern capital – Lomonosov city, it was previously named Oranienbaum. Here is situated a museum that includes a real masterpieces of achitecture of 18th century. These picturesque territories at the shores of Gulf of Finland found Alexander Menshikov who decided to build here his country residence. So that is how was built a new Palace that looked even more impressive than the Palalce of Peter 1 in Peterhof.

Oranienbaum (Lomonosov)1

A beautiful Lower Garden also appeared near the Palace. In 1727 Menshikov got in deportation and all his property including Oranienbaum became Emperor’s authority. In 1743 the Oranienbaum was given as a gift by the Empress Elizabeth Petrovna to her son –future Emperor of Russian Peter 3. So he built a new area in Oranienbaum nabed Petershadt. There were added a fortress and a Palace. A new period of building started in Oranienbaum when the authority of the country became Empress’s Catherine 2.

Oranienbaum (Lomonosov)

The Empress made an Oranienbaum her summer residence and made here a picturesque Palace named “A private villa”.  The main peculiarity is that the main part of parks and palaces in Oranienbaum were not ruined during the Second World War. That is why all the buildings here are original, the same as in Pavlovsk and Tsarskoye Selo. Now on this territory there are several attracts such as the Great Palace and the Lower Garden, Petershadt and the Peter Palace, Peter’s Park, A Private villa with its main buildings, A Chinese Palace.

Oranienbaum (Lomonosov)6

Oranienbaum is still supposed to be one of the most beautiful suburbs of St.Petersburg. In 1948 this city was given the name of the famous russian scientist Lomonosov, because not far away there was located his laboratory with production of colored glass.

Oranienbaum (Lomonosov)5

The Great Palace was built by his first owner  Menshikov in 1710-1727. By its size and decoration it was one in St.Petersburg and its suburbs. It was located on a hill, that is why you have an impression that the Palace is over the shore. Down to sea there go terraces. Peter 3 changed the interiors of the Palace. The eastern pavillion got its name as a Japanese according to 200 of japanese and chinese items that were added to its interior.

Oranienbaum (Lomonosov)7

The Lower Garden is a real work of art, it is a part of the Great Palace. In the center of the Garden were added balconies with flowers, that were surrounded by flowers and many different kinds of trees. In the Garden there were lot’s of fountains and sculptors also.

Большой Ораненбаумский дворец – один из немногих памятников петровского зодчества, сохранившихся до наших дней. Другое название дворца – Меншиковский. Он был построен в 1710-1725 гг. архитекторами Д. М. Фонтана и И. Г. Шеделя. Large Oranenbaumsky Palace - one of the few monuments of Peter architecture extant. Another name for the palace - Menshikov. It was built in 1710-1725 years. architects D. Fontana and IG Schedel.

Petershadt Fortress was by built by Peter 3 also in Oranienbaum. Unfortunately the Fortress was ruined till nowadays, though before it represented by itself a powerful building with towers and bridges and surrounded with basin of water. It was ruined so quickly because its main material was wood. So the only thing that is left till now are the Honour Gates.Though a stone Peter Palace was saved till nowadays and almost didnt changed. In this Palace Peter 3 in 1762 refused from the throne.

Petrovkiy Park reminds a small, cute and cosy place of nature that was created in 19th century. So the main attraction of the Park represents the Lower and the Upper ponds. The main peculiarity of the Park is waterfalls, which make it look more picturesque.


The Upper Park is divided tnto two parts – the eastern part, where is situated Petershadt, and western part, where “A Private villa” is situated. The modern look of the Upper Park – it is created landscape in the middle of 19th century. The main charm to the Park give bridges and achitectural buildings.

The main buildings of “A private villa” are the Chinese Palace, the Pavillion of natal Mountain, the Chinese Kitchen. The Chinese Palace that was created by Antonio Rinaldi  by the order of the Catherine 2, became a real miracle of it speriod. Modern achitects called it as a Miracle to all Miracles.

Oranienbaum (Lomonosov)4

The Palace was decorated with oil paintings, sculpture, silk, golden decoration and many other works of art. So the decoration of 19th century remained unchanged. About this city, its history and development there were written many good books, scientific works, publicistic and artistic books.

The city lived and bloomed with its achitectural forms, cultural and religion buildings and monuments. And this all happened thanks to amazing and wonderful people who lived and created this beauty of the Earth.

Bronze Horseman


The Bronze Horseman appeared in St.Petersburg when the city was celebrating its anniversary of 300 years. At that time in the city appereared many different monuments but the most famous was The Bronze Horseman, it was created by sculptor Falkone. In the middle of 18th century Catherine the Great planned to create the monument that will be devoted to the Peter 1, the founder of St.Petersburg city that is why she invited a French sculptor Falkone in Russia.

Bronze Horseman
In 1766 Falkone came to Russia with a visit, he started to work at the model of hourse monument.While the creation of the monument he used a gypsum mask and a wax body of Peter 1. The whole of the monument model took 12 years and it was ready to 1769. The process of work of the monument took place at the territory of previous temporary Winter Palace. In 1769 people observed the installation of the monument, it lasted for several hours every day. The hourses where taken from the Emperor’s horse stable.
The head of the Horseman was created by a student of Falkone Marie-Ann Kollo,she made the head and for her work  Catherine 2, gave her a life-long pension. The snake under the leg of the Horseman made Russian sculptor Gordeev. By the plan of sculptor the basement of the monument represent a rock in view of a wave. The shape of the wave remains that exactly Peter 1 lead out Russia to the sea.

Bronze Horseman 1
By the legend once the rocket was struck by lightning and there appeared a crack. Among people the rocket was called as “Lightning-stone”, it was called the same later when it was based on the Shore of Niva River under the famous monument. Its weight is 1600 tones. So the rocket was delivered to its place for 9 months on the barge.
Actually noone wanted to make the cast of the monument; the foreigners required a lot of money for this work, while Russian masters were scared of the size. At last the caster was found, his name was Emelian Hailov. Together with Falkone he tried to find the best cast, during 3 years he learned the cast technology and in 1774 he started to cast the monument. This technology was very complicated, so the one cast was not enough for the monument. While the first cast the upper part was damaged and it was cut off.
So it took for next three years to continue the work and prepare next cast. In its memory Falkone left a note on the coat of the Horseman. The process of casting was very dangerous and it could arise a huge fire. But Hailov was very responsible and cheerful while work, so nothing has happened at this time.
But to the moment of monument’s installation relationships with Peter 1 were spoiled and there was even gossip that Falkone helped only with technical part, so he was so much offended that didnt wait till the opening of the monument and left Russia together with Marie-Ann Kollo. The installation process was under Gordeev’s management. This even observed Catherine 2 and all St.Petersburg’s society.

The Bronze Horseman
So the name of the Bronze Horseman was given to the monument by Pushkin in one of his poems, and this expression became so popular that this name became almost official.
During the Great Patriotic War there was a threaten to move the monument from the city, but it was impossible, moreover citizens were afraid that the monument would be damaged while fascist aviation attacks, so people built a special box, with the height above 14 meters and covered the monument with it.
Luckily this unique monument was not damaged, it was opened at once when the war was over.Nowadays it is the most popular place for just married. So The Bronze Horseman in St.Petersburg is truly the most expressive monument and considered to be the monument of Peter 1, as a symbol of St.Petersburg.
The Bronze Horseman is one of the best monuments in Europe, in its honour Catherine the Great made a coin, where at the one side was placed her portrait and at another the monument. Nowadays it is also a popular place for visitors and especially for just married.

Military-Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineer and Signal Corps in St. Petersburg

Museum of Artillery1

The Military-Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineer and Signal Corps in St. Petersburg is the largest Military Museum in the world. It is also known as the Museum of Artillery, at the same time it is one of the oldest museums of the city. The creation of the museum started at the same time as the building of St. Petersburg.

The Museum was build by the order of Peter 1, as a place where should be saved unique historical examples of weapon and they should be situated in .In the middle of 19th century the military collection moved in the Peter and Paul Fortress (Petropavlovskaya Krepost). Later it became a museum.

Museum of Artillery

Today in the collection of the Museum are situated for more than 500.000 exhibits, among them are: different artillery technics, military form of different ages, military emblems and flags, medals, work of military art, weapon trophies of Russian army,the largest collection of different small-weapon and cold weapon – from iron arquebus and ancient Slavonic swords to the Kalashnikov gun.

In the museum you can also see the main guns of Peter the Great, a front car that moved artillery flags, military awards of Russian Emperors, private gun of Alexander 1 and Nikolay 2, Napoleon Bonapart,marshal Murrey and many other russian and soviet military captains and commanders. In the museum there is a hall of russian rocket technics – starting with technics of 18th century and till the first nuclear rockets.This exhibition is devoted to Kutuzov, consisted of his things that are situated in a rebuilt room, where he spend his last days of life.

Artillery Museum

On the 3d floor of the Museum there are exhibits devoted to the Great Patriotic War. But what mostly attracts visitors’ attention is an outter exposition, that was opened in november 2002 after the reconstruction. On the open squares of the territory are situated 250 items of artillery and rocket weapon, engineer technics and technics of communication. Here are represented as the soviet as the foreign weapons – from the ancient to the modern ones.

As the museum was built in 1703, since that times here you can find here the greatest collection – Russian weapons and weapon of many other countries, including experimental examples and private weapon of famous people, uniform, awards, examples of sculpture and oil paintings, models of fortresses, documents and many other. The museum is situated on the territory of Petropavlovskaya Krepost. The inner buildings are decorated in gothic style and the inner court is railed by a brick wall. The main and nearest attracts are Petropavlovskaya Krepost, Alexandrovskiy Park, Leninskiy zoo, the Winter Palace and House of Peter the Great.

Historical Museum

Nowadays the Artillery Museum has unique collections of weapons; in its fonds are gathered more than 700.000 items, 215.000 of archives, 100.000 books of military and historical literature, 90.000 of photographic negatives and slides.

Since 1918 the Museum keeps more than 27 regimental sections of Russian Army. The exposition is situated in 13 halls and on the territory of more than 17.000 square kilometers, here are represented the examples of middleaged and modern weapons, rocket systems that are situated on the outter exposition.

During 2002 year in the Museum is opened the exposition “Weapon legends of 20th century”. Here are represented examples of weapon of the legendary constructors, such as, Brawning, Mauzer, Nagan, Kalashnikov and many others. The unique collection allows to follow the development of weapon during 20th century – from guns and rifles of World War First to the modern examples of individual and group small-weapon.

The Military-Historical Museum of Artillery

In the Museum are gathered the best collections from Russia and 54 countries of the world, you will be definitely impressed by such a variety. The Military-Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineer and Signal Corps in St.Petersburgh is a precious place to visit, it will be interesting for people from all over the world. Here you can learn about the historical and cultural life of Russia, France, Great Britain, Denmark, Sweden and many other outstanding countries.

Visiting of the oldest Russian Museum will give you not only pleasure, but an opportunity to learn more about age-old military history of Russia and many other countries.

The Cathedral of SS Peter and Paul

architect Vasiliy Kosyakov

There are more than 200 churches and cathedrals in Saint Petersburg including synagogues, kostels and mosques, most of them are orthodox, it stands to reason. You cannot imagine this city without them; the word ‘Saint’ in the name of it does play a role. The Cathedral of SS Peter and Paul is in top ten of the most beautiful.

Cathedral of SS Peter and Paul

The building process was started in 1894 under the guidance of Russian architect Vasiliy Kosyakov and the work was finished in 1904. Its height is about 70 meters; it can seat 800 people under the roof at the same time. The cathedral is surrounded by roofed gallery which has special rooms for consecration of attributes that are used during the Easter. There are a bell gable and a chapel by the main entrance. The doors of the chapel are decorated with arched portal made of blocked stone. The main iconostasis was designed on the same pattern with Grecian, orthodox The St. George church in Venice.

The main iconostasis

The Cathedral of SS Peter and Paul will blow your mind, and impression which you will get after visiting it is never going to fade. It never became a museum and still works as actual place of worship.

St. Petersburg Today

Familiar St.Petersburg

By the end of WWII, Leningrad had pretty much recovered from the consequences of the Siege and raids. Following the Great Victory, the government and city residents continued to sacrifice their lives for the city’s resurrection. Unlike other Soviet cities, Leningrad was restored to its pre-war magnificence. Even completely destroyed buildings, such as the Palace of Peterhof, were reconstructed precisely.

St. Peterburg 2

By the 1970s, the city achieved social and economic stability and became one of the world’s greatest tourist attractions. Tourists from the USSR and from abroad, even those from rival countries, flooded the city’s historic blocks, squares, museums, etc.

St. Peterburg 4

From the 1970 through the early 1980s the city’s economy was stable. With the advent of the renowned Perestroika reformist policy, the city began to deal with serious economic problems. In the times of total economic, political and social disintegration, followed by the breakup of the Soviet Union, the city slid into chaos and lawlessness.

St. Peterburg

In 1991, after the city referendum, the city’s Soviet name of Leningrad was changed back to the Germanic St. Petersburg.

St. Peterburg 1

Throughout the 1990s, St. Peterburg was dealing with political instability and notoriously high criminal activity. After the turn of the 21st century, some business areas began to show signs of improvement. By now, the city has attracted a substantial amount of foreign capital. Although most industries are still down, and St. Petersburg is behind Moscow and some other industrial cities economically, the city has obtained its own unique economic climate.  By the 300th anniversary of its foundation, which was celebrated in 2003, St. Petersburg had undergone a significant renovation. Being one of the world’s biggest tourist attractions, it has become no smaller an attraction for both domestic and foreign hotel business.

Catherine Garden

Catherine Garden 1

The Catherine Garden has always been a favorite place of citizens of St. Petersburg. It is placed in the center of the city on Nevskiy Avenue and surrounded by no less famous buildings of one of the greatest libraries in the world, the National Library of Russia, and the Alexandrinsky Theatre. The central point of the park is occupied by the statue of Catherine II the Great established in 1873 in honor of which it was named. The project of the monument was designed in 1862 by Russian artist M. Mikeshin who is also the author of well-known historical monument “Tysacheletie of Russia” (millennium of Russia) in Novgorod. The project of the pedestal was created by D. Grimm, an administrator of works in the garden and an architect.

Catherine Garden

According to the project, Catherine II is surrounded by nine eminent people of her epoch; they are politicians, generals, scientists and so on. The sculpture was made by M. Opekushin. For the first time, the square was founded in 1820s just as an addition to the Alexandrinsky Theatre. At that time it was planned and created under the direction of famous Russian architect with Italian roots K. Rossi and a gardener Y. Fedorov. The garden received its actual name only fifty years later during a reconstruction under the guidance of D. Grimm and L. Regel who was a botanist.


At the present time, the Catherine Garden has a total area of about ten thousand square meters. It is enclosed with set of railings; wings of the gates are decorated with Catherine the Great monogram. The statue of Catherine the Great is so popular that it is connected with many legends. One of them says that when it was mounting people who stay around were throwing jewelry underneath as a mark of respect and some believe that treasures are still under the monument in the Catherine Garden. However the park is precious itself.

Smolny Cathedral


In the early forties of the 18th century inheritress of the Russian throne, Elizaveta The Great decided to spend the rest of her life in peace and quiet near a church. So, when she became the empress she ordered to build a church in place of “Smolny House”, the palace where she spent her youth. Francesco Rastrelli, an Italian architect was invited to be at the head of the building process.

Smolny House

The cathedral has five cupolas. Only the main dome refers directly to the cathedral itself, the rest are chapels. The building is almost a hundred meters tall, it is painted in white and Cambridge blue, all cupolas are grey. Architecture of Smolny Cathedral was planned so that when you approach it, the cathedral visually seems to be smaller but it does not lose any of its majesty. There was a 140-meter, 5-floor bell tower in the first project but because of a balance-of-payments deficit it was never built. However the actual building is rather tall, its height is 94 meters which is equal to three 9-floor apartment buildings that are placed one on the top of another. As opposed to others, Smolny Cathedral was never opened for worship. Since 1990, a concert hall has been working in the Cathedral.



During World War I (1914-1918), when everything German would grate on every Russian citizen’s mind and ear, the Russian government decided to change the capital’s name from the Germanic St. Petersburg to the Russian Petrograd. The involvement in the protracted war entailed total militarization of national economy, and contributed to its rapid exhaustion and therefore social and political unrest.  By 1916, food supply deteriorated drastically, and the revolutionary process became irreversible. The social disturbance and wartime hardships culminated in the 1917 February Revolution, which ended in the abdication of Nicholas II – the last tsar in the history of Russia.


The situation continued to worsen throughout 1917. The Provisional Government’s ineffective methods resulted in total chaos and discord. On October 25, the socio-democratic Bolshevist party, headed by Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin), overthrew the Provisional Government and arrested most of the ministers. The cruiser Avrora fired a blank shot to signal the storm of the Winter Palace.


Economic collapse and the brewing Civil War forced many city residents to leave Petrograd and settle in the countryside where food was more available. By 1920, Petrograd’s population decreased threefold.


Because the Germans were dangerously close to Petrograd and the national boundary got closer to the city due to the collapse of the Empire, Vladimir Lenin moved the capital to Moscow. Many streets and objects in Petrograd were named after famous revolutionary activists and events. Nevsky Prospekt was named Prospekt of October 25. Palace Named after a famous Communist activist, Palace Square became Uritsky Square.


The New Economic Policy instituted after the Civil War contributed to a relative betterment of the situation, and the city began to recover from the recent social, political and economical upheavals.

Leningrad Zoo

Leningrad Zoo 1

Leningrad Zoo is one of the oldest in Russia and the most northern zoo in the World. It was founded 125 years ago, in 1865 but in spite of the fact that there are no old-style buildings left; it still has the same location and layout as it used to have in the 19th century. It was the first zoo of the then capital. Leningrad zoo is located in the center of the city on the territory of Alexander Garden. At the present time, total area of the zoo is over 70 thousand square meters; it has over 3.5 thousand animals, and about 6.5 hundred species. Leningrad zoo is an amazing historical site with its own wide stories. Even during the blockade of Leningrad at the height of war the zoo was still working. Workers succeeded in saving a big part of the collection, although a lot of animals were killed. In honor of this act of heroism it was remained under the same name “Leningradskiy” in spite of the fact of renaming the city.

Leningrad Zoo 2

Nowadays various arrangements take place in the Leningrad Zoo, for instance review and theme excursions, educational programs and ecological games, educational lectures, different exhibitions, so called “days of feeding the animals”, when all comers are able to buy food and feed animals without any assistance from employees of the zoo, amusement park for kids etc. Also there are some plans for the future development. The administration of the zoo supposes to build a new zoo in Yuntolovo which will be a branch of the existing one. Small animals are supposed to be left in the city and large specimens are going to be moved in the new one. They are expecting to get an area of three millions square meters for further actions. As predicted, the new zoo will be visited by 1.5-2 million people a year. Now it’s only a plan nevertheless but the doors of the Leningrad zoo are opened and welcome every comer.

Leningrad Zoo

Botanical Garden


There are hundreds of great and amazing historical and cultural sights to be seen in the North Capital of Russia, St. Petersburg; one of them is the Botanical Garden. At present, the garden is attached to Botanical Institute of V. L. Komarov and Russian Academy of Sciences, so its full name includes abbreviations of both these organizations. But until 1925 it existed under the name of the Impertorskiy Garden (imperial garden). It was originated as one of pharmaceutical gardens that were created in order to cultivate and collect various medicinal herbs. The garden was rather big, its total area in the beginning of 18th century was more than 270 thousands square meters; it equals almost 38 soccer fields placed one after another. Historical name of the garden was given under Alexander I in 1823. The Botanical garden already contained 15000 different plants in 1823. Currently, the number of plants in the collection has reduced comparing to its state in the 19th century and it equals about 7.500. It was caused by consequences of the Second World War, after bombing slightly more than 200 examples were saved. The area which is occupied by the garden also became smaller than it used to be and now approximately equals ten thousand square meters.

Botanical Garden

Nowadays different excursions for all comers take place in the Botanical Garden such as “Aqueous Plants” or “Plants from tropical areas of the Earth”. They depend on season. Also the garden provides special educational excursions for students. To sum up, at the present the time Imperatorskiy Garden is a historical sight of St. Petersburg and precious scientific facility which contains lots of important material for scientists from all over the world. So, this place is especially recommended for people who interested in botany and for all nature-lovers as well.